India’s mission on Moon, Chandrayaan, is a series of ambitious space exploration projects by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO).
The first mission, Chandrayaan-1, was launched in 2008 and successfully orbited the Moon for 10 months, carrying out various scientific experiments and deploying an impactor that confirmed the presence of water on the lunar surface¹².
The second mission, Chandrayaan-2, was launched in 2019 and attempted to land a rover near the south pole of the Moon, but failed due to a loss of communication with the lander³. The third mission, Chandrayaan-3, was launched in 2023 and achieved a historic feat by successfully landing a rover in the lunar south pole region, making India the first nation to do so⁴.
The rover collected valuable data and images from the unexplored area, which could help in future lunar exploration and colonization. Chandrayaan is a remarkable example of India’s scientific and technological prowess and its contribution to the global understanding of the Moon.
The objectives of Chandrayaan-3 are to demonstrate the capability of safe landing and exploration on the lunar surface. The mission consists of three components: a lander module, a rover, and a propulsion module. The lander module will soft land at a specified site near the lunar south pole and deploy the rover, which will carry out in-situ chemical analysis of the lunar surface during the course of its mobility. The propulsion module will transport the lander and rover from the Earth orbit to the lunar orbit and also carry a scientific payload for post-separation operation.
Sources for further reading:
(1) Chandrayaan programme – Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chandrayaan_programme.
(2) Chandrayaan-1 – Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chandrayaan-1.
(3) Chandrayaan-1 / Moon Impact Probe – NASA Science. https://science.nasa.gov/mission/chandrayaan-1.
(4) Chandrayaan 2 Mission Essay [UPSC Notes GS III] – BYJU’S. https://byjus.com/free-ias-prep/chandrayaan-2-mission-india-upsc-notes/.